They first appeared as Slovakia at the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta in 1996.
All their gold medals to date have come in canoeing. Michal MARTIKAN won their first gold in Canadian singles slalom in Atlanta. He added silver at Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004, and then won gold again at the Beiing 2008 Olympic Games.
Twins Peter and Pavol HOCHSCHORNER won canoeing gold in the Canadian doubles at three successive Olympic Games from 2000 to 2008. They were coached by their father.
Elena KALISKA won gold in the women's kayak singles in 2004 and also in 2008.
Between 1920 and 1992, Slovak athletes competed as part of the Czechoslovakia team.
Boxer Julius TORMA won welterweight gold at the 1948 Olympic Games in London.
The Czechoslovakian team that won the Moscow 1980 football gold medal included Slovakian goalkeeper Stanislav SEMAN, and Frantisek KUNZO.
When tennis was re-introduced to the Olympic programme in Seoul in 1988, Slovakia's Miloslav MECIR won the men's singles. His compatriot Josef PRIBILINEC won the men's 20km walk at the same Games.
The first Slovakian to compete in the Olympic Games was Alojz SKOKOL, who represented Hungary at the Athens 1896 Olympic Games.